Circular Economy for Energy Storage

Research output: NRELFact Sheet


As batteries proliferate in electric vehicles, stationary storage, and other applications, NREL is exploring ways to reduce the amount of critical materials they require and increase the lifetime value of the materials they contain. These efforts are designed to help transform the "linear economy"--where materials are simply used and disposed--into a circular one.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages2
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/FS-5700-82328


  • batteries
  • circular economy
  • cobalt
  • energy storage
  • lithium


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