Close Roof-Mounted System Temperature Estimation for Compliance to IEC TS 63126: Article No. 112987

Michael Kempe, Silvana Ovaitt, Martin Springer, Matthew Brown, Dirk Jordan, William Sekulic, Colleen O'Brien, Jean-Nicolas Jaubert, Yuanjie Yu, Jaewon Oh, Govindasamy Tamizhmani, Bo Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


When photovoltaic (PV) modules are installed on rooftops, the module temperature depends primarily on the geographic location and the mounting configuration. If the mounting structure does not provide sufficient airflow in a hot environment, the 98th percentile temperature will exceed 70 degrees C, which according to IEC TS 63126 ED. 1, requires higher levels of thermal stability testing. However, there is no clear way to determine the temperature level needed for a particular location and system design. In this work, we identify a relationship between the module standoff to the rooftop and the module temperature and propose methods to describe a minimum standoff for typical PV modules in a simple mounting configuration installed in a given location. For more complex system designs, we show how to determine an equivalent “effective standoff” that can be applied to generic calculations. Lastly, we show measurements and calculations from several systems to demonstrate how this method could work.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-89150


  • BAPV
  • BIPV
  • high-temperature
  • IEC TS 63126
  • open-rack
  • photovoltaic
  • roof-mount


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