Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices

Ingrid Repins, Carolyn Beall, Nirav Vora, Clay Dehart, Darius Kuciauskas, Pat Dippo, Bobby To, Jonathan Mann, Wan Ching Hsu, Alan Goodrich, Rommel Noufi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

620 Scopus Citations


The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu 2ZnSnSe 4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)154-159
Number of pages6
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - Jun 2012

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5200-52930


  • Co-evaporation
  • CZTS
  • Earth-abundant
  • Kesterite
  • Solar cell
  • Thin film


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