Co-Processing Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oil in an FCC Reactor

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Studies of co-processing catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oil with vacuum gas oil (VGO) are conducted in a Davison Circulating Riser (DCR). The CFP oil (CFPO) for this study was produced by upgrading fast-pyrolysis vapors from pine in an ex-situ fixed-bed reactor. CFPOs were co-processed at up to a volume fraction of 0.05 with VGO at 521 °C and 257 kPa. The yields of oil, aqueous phase, tail gas, and coke were measured. The amount of coke was determined from the carbon containing components in the regenerator flue gas. A compositional analysis was conducted with gas chromatography and elemental analyzers. The organic liquids were distilled into gasoline, jet-fuel, diesel, and resid fractions. A biocarbon analysis was conducted on the organic phase and its individual boiling-point fractions. The results show a small decrease in liquid yield and a generally increased gas yield when co-processing CFPO with VGO. The experiments showed that 75%–100% of biocarbon is incorporated into liquid fuels relative to fossil carbon, depending on catalyst and CFPO. The measurements indicate that cracked CFPO components are predominantly included in the jet-fuel and diesel fractions. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) estimated the minimum fuel selling price (MSFP) for fuel-range products derived from FCC co-processing of CFPO at 24 to 29 $/GJ ($2.90 to $3.50 per gasoline-gallon equivalent; GGE) at a yield of 4.87–7.14 GJ/t(biomass) or 40–58 GGE/t.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number106484
Number of pages12
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5100-83140


  • Biorefining
  • Circulating fluidized bed (CFB)
  • Pyrolysis oil
  • Upgrading


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