Collaborative Distribution System Restoration Planning and Real-Time Dispatch Considering Behind-the-Meter DERs

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18 Scopus Citations


Modern distribution systems are becoming more resilient against power outages thanks to the flexible generation capacity provided by the increasing integration of distributed energy resources (DERs). Compared to utility-scale DERs, which can be directly controlled by system operators, small-scale, behind-the-meter DERs are much more difficult to coordinate despite being the vast majority. Two major obstacles to the implementation of DERs for service restoration are the coordination of behind-the-meter DERs and the management of uncertainty. In this paper, a novel distribution system restoration strategy is proposed to overcome these two obstacles. The flexibility of behind-the-meter DERs is quantified and integrated into the restoration planning models within a hierarchical structure. The model predictive control technique is employed to enable adaptive restoration planning solution adjustments to accommodate fault scenarios and forecast errors. Besides, real-time power dispatch models are proposed to maintain power balance using available DER capability. Comprehensive integration of adaptive restoration planning schemes and real-time dispatch results are achieved through a collaborative restoration framework. The effectiveness of the proposed restoration strategy is verified through a modified IEEE 123-bus system and a real-world utility system.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9310248
Pages (from-to)3629-3644
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1969-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-76693


  • Distributed energy resources (DERs)
  • Distribution system restoration
  • Model predictive control (MPC)
  • Real-time dispatch
  • Restoration planning
  • Unbalanced distribution system


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