Colorado Residential Retrofit Energy District (CoRRED) Phase I: Final Modeling Results

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Electrification of buildings and transportation coupled with increased deployment of distributed energy resources (DERs) has been identified as a key step toward meeting emissions reduction goals across the U.S. Examples of pilot projects that feature innovative, 'smart' electric neighborhoods are largely focused on new construction projects, but there is a need to address the millions of existing homes so that they too may accommodate cleaner yet variable energy production in ways that benefit both the utility grid and the homes' residents. The Colorado Residential Retrofit Energy District (CoRRED) project used building and grid co-simulation tools to model an advanced energy district demonstration in an existing residential neighborhood in Denver, Colorado, and explored how existing building and utility infrastructures can be enhanced with combinations of traditional energy-efficiency retrofit measures and integration of solar panels and other DER technologies to provide better affordability and reliability. We analyzed which packages of DERs most reliably enable demand flexibility in response to a time-of-use (TOU) rate. Our results clearly indicate that incorporating DERs into efficient electrification produces much bigger utility bill savings on an annual basis than efficient electrification without DERs. While electrifying a neighborhood will increase the maximum load, batteries and solar panels can reduce load during peak hours so that the community can be a net producer during peak periods. A remaining challenge is to overcome first cost barriers to implementing energy-efficiency and DER technologies, as modest utility bill savings require long payback periods that are not practical for most homeowners.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages45
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5500-82325


  • buildings
  • decarbonization
  • distributed energy resources
  • electrification
  • energy efficiency
  • residential
  • retrofit


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