Combining Reclaimed PET with Bio-Based Monomers Enables Plastics Upcycling

Gregg Beckham, Nicholas Rorrer, Scott Nicholson, Alberta Carpenter Petri, Mary Biddy, Nicholas Grundl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

179 Scopus Citations


PET is a ubiquitous material because of its robust properties. Today, less than 30% of PET bottles and few carpets are recycled in the United States, leading to the majority of PET being landfilled. The low PET reclamation rate is due to the fact that PET bottle recycling today is mechanical, resulting in a devalued product. Here, reclaimed PET (rPET) bottles are converted to fiberglass-reinforced plastics (FRPs), which sell for more than twice that of rPET. When monomers derivable from biomass are incorporated, rPET-FRPs with superior properties are achieved. Supply chain energy calculations reveal that this strategy for plastics upcycling could save significant total manufacture energy, mainly from savings in associated energy from petroleum feedstocks, and could also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, this approach provides an economic incentive for plastics recycling and renewable feedstock use through the creation of long-lifetime, performance-advantaged materials.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1006-1027
Number of pages22
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2A00-73030


  • 1,4-butanediol
  • biomass
  • composites
  • muconic acid
  • PET
  • plastic waste
  • recycling
  • reinforced plastics
  • upcycling


Dive into the research topics of 'Combining Reclaimed PET with Bio-Based Monomers Enables Plastics Upcycling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this