Commercial Building Planning and Retrofitting Strategy for Grid Services

Weijia Liu, Yiyun Yao, Rishabh Jain, Richard Mrlik, Zander Mrlik

Research output: NRELPoster


The increasing integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) plays an important role in improving energy consumption efficiency. In September 2020, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved Order 2222 which opens wholesale electricity markets to small capacity DERs. The benefit of this new FERC Order 2222 is that DERs, such as rooftop solar panels and batteries, will be able to participate in regional electricity markets and provide grid services. Meanwhile, the planning and operation strategies of DERs are facing new challenges to account for the impact of the wholesale market with numerous uncertainty factors. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new planning and retrofitting model for long-term commercial buildings that considers both DER investment and market participation. Specifically, we explore the capability of implementing DERs for grid services. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated using real-world data. Simulation results also validate that participating in grid services can significantly increase revenues through appropriate building energy management and shorten the payback period of DER investments.
Original languageAmerican English
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NamePresented at the IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT NA), 24-28 April 2022, New Orleans, Louisiana

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PO-5D00-82612


  • building energy management
  • distributed energy resources
  • electricity market
  • frequency regulation
  • grid services
  • power system planning


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