Comparative operando XPS Studies of Quasi-Fermi Level Splitting and Open-Circuit Voltage in CZTSe/CdS and CIGS/CdS Junctions and Device Structures: Article No. 031202

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Abstract

This contribution describes operando x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (opXPS) studies of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) absorber layers and device structures. X-ray-excited valence-band and core-level spectra were acquired on bare absorber surfaces and after CdS and ZnO:Al depositions in standard absorber/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al device stacks. OpXPS data sets were acquired at various x-ray fluxes, with and without white-light illumination. From these measurements, quasi-Fermi level splitting (..delta..EF) values in the absorber/CdS junctions were measured directly as a function of excitation conditions. For both CIGS and CZTSe, results show that ..delta..EF proportional to the full open-circuit voltage (VOC) of the completed devices is present after the deposition of the CdS layer - i.e., ..delta..EF = qVOC - demonstrating that the so-called VOC deficit in CZTSe solar cells is also present at this stage of processing. The authors find that photoexcitation due to x-rays or stray visible light during XPS or similar measurements can produce measurable photovoltages in materials, absorber/CdS junctions, and finished devices. In situ current density versus voltage measurements on a typical CIGS device reveal that x-ray-induced photoexcitation associated with typical XPS measurement conditions is equivalent to ~3 x 10-3 suns, which in this study produced VOC = 440 mV. These findings demonstrate that accounting for photoexcitation conditions during XPS or similar measurements can improve band-offset determinations and produce more reliable values for the junction built-in voltage. The implications of the study findings on the CZTSe VOC deficit and device performance are discussed.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Volume37
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-63930

Keywords

  • electrical properties and parameters
  • electronic bandstructure
  • photoexcitations
  • transition metal chalcogenides
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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