Comparison of Modular Analytical Wake Models to the Lillgrund Wind Plant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus Citations


Efficient and accurate wake models are required for wind plant performance modeling and the suite of engineering processes that support wind plant layout, control, and monitoring. Although many analytical and engineering wake models with low computational costs have been proposed, their ability to represent the power production of large wind plants in a wide range of atmospheric conditions is not completely understood. The following validation study reviews the underlying theory for analytical wake models, outlines quality control procedures for observational data, and compares model results with observational data from the Lillgrund Wind Plant. Lillgrund makes a valuable case study for wake modeling because of its regular arrangement and the relatively close spacing of constituent wind turbines, which lead to regular and significant wake interactions within the wind plant and the development of deep array flow conditions. Formulations for the velocity deficit, wake-added turbulence, and wake superposition methods are considered in a modular sense, yielding many possible configurations to represent wind turbine wakes, of which seven are examined in detail. Velocity deficit models that account for flow conditions in the near wake are better able to reproduce power production for wind turbines in the transitional region of the wind plant, where wind turbines experience as many as five wakes from upstream turbines. In the deep array, where power production reaches asymptotic values and wake statistics become quasi-periodic, wake superposition schemes become the largest driver in error reduction; using the linear or maximum wake superposition methods can reduce the relative root mean square error by as much as 40% in the deep array.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number053311
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-77011


  • deep array
  • validation
  • wake model


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparison of Modular Analytical Wake Models to the Lillgrund Wind Plant'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this