Complementarities of Supply and Demand Sides in Integrated Energy Systems

Steve Heinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus Citations


New small-scale demand-side technologies, such as micro combined heat and power technologies (uCHPs) and heat pumps (HPs), offer opportunities to increase system-wide efficiency. Furthermore, the technical and economic characteristics of demand-side technologies could also complement the supply side by providing system services, such as adequacy and flexibility, which are increasingly required due to high variable renewable energy penetration. A capacity expansion methodology that captures the interactions between the supply and demand sides is developed to find cost-optimal and adequate investment portfolios. For the case study presented, the integrated energy system leverages the technical and economic complementarities of different supply and demand-side technologies. As a result, system integration using demand-side technologies improves the value proposition for decentralization given that the technologies can provide heat demand, while also meeting electricity demand and providing adequacy and flexibility.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1156-1165
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5C00-72713


  • decentralization
  • energy systems integration
  • heating
  • power system economics
  • power system planning


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