Comprehensive Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

Kandler Smith, M. Schimpe, M. E. von Kuepach, M. Naumann, H. Hesse, A. Jossen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus Citations


For reliable lifetime predictions of lithium-ion batteries, models for cell degradation are required. A comprehensive semi-empirical model based on a reduced set of internal cell parameters and physically justified degradation functions for the capacity loss is developed and presented for a commercial lithium iron phosphate/graphite cell. One calendar and several cycle aging effects are modeled separately. Emphasis is placed on the varying degradation at different temperatures. Degradation mechanisms for cycle aging at high and low temperatures as well as the increased cycling degradation at high state of charge are calculated separately. For parameterization, a lifetime test study is conducted including storage and cycle tests. Additionally, the model is validated through a dynamic current profile based on real-world application in a stationary energy storage system revealing the accuracy. Tests for validation are continued for up to 114 days after the longest parametrization tests. The model error for the cell capacity loss in the application-based tests is at the end of testing below 1% of the original cell capacity and the maximum relative model error is below 21%.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)A181-A193
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2018.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-70616


  • aging
  • degradation
  • energy storage
  • life model
  • lithium-ion battery


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