Condition Monitoring of Permanent Magnet AC Machines for All-Electric Transportation Systems: State of the Art

Adil Usman, Bharat Singh Rajpurohit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current state of the art on emerging and efficient techniques for condition monitoring of permanent magnet (PM) alternating-current (AC) machines deployed in electric vehicle (EV) applications is presented. The discussion includes the most common and specific types of faults in PM motors, such as rotor demagnetisation and stator inter-turn faults, respectively. Fault indicators, such as voltage (vs) and current (is) signals and machine signatures based on motor back electromotive force (EMF) (EB) and magnetic flux (..phi..), are taken into account as a measuring quantity in diagnosing motor faults. Other signatures, including thermal analysis, acoustic noise, and vibrations, are also illustrated as some of the emerging techniques in estimating the performance of EV motors while under operations. In addition, various fault modelling methods, condition monitoring techniques, and comprehensive approaches applied in diagnosing the effect of machine faults during its incipient stages are illustrated. Since most of the fault diagnostic techniques discussed here include only machine-based quantities as fault indices/indicators, the provided solutions are therefore found to be more reliable and accurate for diagnosing the motor faults. This comprehensive review study is inclusive of the existing fault diagnostic techniques, which are currently employed in industrial and commercial practices, in addition to the new methodologies proposed by the authors. All the given condition monitoring schemes therefore seem significantly vital in estimating the state of health of PM AC machines while under operation in all-electric transportation systems.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalIET Energy Systems Integration
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-85151


  • electric vehicles
  • fault diagnosis
  • permanent magnet motors


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