Control Co-Design of Wind Turbines

Lucy Pao, Manuel Pusch, Daniel Zalkind

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Wind energy is recognized worldwide as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, and it is among the fastest-growing sources of electrical energy. To further decrease the cost of wind energy, wind turbines are being designed at ever-larger scales. To expand the deployment of wind energy, wind turbines are also being designed on floating platforms for placement in deep-water locations offshore. Both larger-scale and floating wind turbines pose challenges because of their greater structural loads and deflections. Complex, large-scale systems such as modern wind turbines increasingly require a control co-design approach, whereby the system design and control design are performed in a more integrated fashion. This article reviews recent developments in control co-design of wind turbines. We provide an overview of wind turbine design objectives and constraints, issues in the design of key wind turbine components, modeling of the wind turbine and environment, and controller coupling issues. Wind turbine control functions and the integration of control design in co-design are detailed with a focus on co-design compatible control approaches.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages28
JournalAnnual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-86949


  • control co-design
  • control systems
  • design coupling
  • wind energy systems


Dive into the research topics of 'Control Co-Design of Wind Turbines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this