Control, Operation, and Stability Characteristics of Grid-Forming Type III Wind Turbines: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


This paper explores the control, operation, and stability characteristics of grid-forming Type III wind turbines. The paper shows that the grid-forming operation mode requires redesign of only the slower control loops for active and reactive power control, whereas the faster current control implementation can stay the same as grid-following turbines. The paper also shows that grid-forming wind turbines face higher mechanical stress than grid-following wind turbines because of the slower speed of the active power control. This stress, however, can be mitigated using advanced pitch control. The paper compares the stability characteristics of the grid-forming and grid-following operation modes of Type III turbines by comparing sequence impedance responses for both operation modes. It is found that, unlike standard Type III wind turbines, the grid-forming mode substantially reduces the risks of subsynchronous oscillations during operation with series-compensated transmission lines. Moreover, the grid-forming Type III turbines can operate stably with extremely weak grids. The findings of this paper are validated using EMT-PSCAD simulations of a 2.5-MW turbine operating in both grid-forming and grid-following modes.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2020
Event19th Wind Integration Workshop -
Duration: 11 Nov 202012 Nov 2020


Conference19th Wind Integration Workshop

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-78158


  • control
  • grid-forming
  • operation
  • stability
  • Type III
  • wind turbines


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