Control-Oriented Model for Secondary Effects of Wake Steering

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This paper presents a model to incorporate the secondary effects of wake steering in large arrays of turbines. Previous models have focused on the aerodynamic interaction of wake steering between two turbines. The model proposed in this paper builds on these models to include yaw-induced wake recovery and secondary steering seen in large arrays of turbines when wake steering is performed. Turbines operating in yaw-misaligned conditions generate counter-rotating vortices that entrain momentum and contribute to the deformation and deflection of the wake at downstream turbines. Rows of turbines can compound the effects of wake steering that benefit turbines far downstream. This model quantifies these effects and demonstrates that wake steering has greater potential to increase the performance of a wind farm due to these counter-rotating vortices especially for large rows of turbines. This is validated using numerous large-eddy simulations for three-turbine, five-turbine, and wind farm scenarios.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)701-714
Number of pages14
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5000-75648 for article as published in Wind Energy Science Discussions

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-80255


  • controls-oriented model
  • wind energy
  • wind farm control


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