Controlled Humidity Study on the Formation of Higher Efficiency Formamidinium Lead Triiodide-Based Solar Cells

Sarah Wozny, Mengjin Yang, Alexandre M. Nardes, Candy C. Mercado, Suzanne Ferrere, Matthew O. Reese, Weilie Zhou, Kai Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

135 Scopus Citations

Abstract

We report on the effect of humidity on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of formamidinium lead halide perovskite (FAPbI3; prepared by a solvent engineering method) and the device characteristics of planar FAPbI3 solar cells. The relative humidity strongly affects the perovskite film morphology, which changes from a uniform, fully covered FAPbI3 film at low relative humidity (e.g., ∼2%) to an inhomogeneous film consisting of many voids (or pinholes) at high humidity (30%-40%). This morphological deterioration with increasing humidity is also accompanied by a reduction of the film crystallinity, decay of optical property, and shorter carrier lifetime. The device based on a planar FAPbI3 film shows the best conversion efficiency of 16.6% (with the stabilized output efficiency of 16.4%) at a low humidity (∼2%). Higher humidity leads to lower device performance, mainly due to the loss of open-circuit voltage and fill factor, which is consistent with the decrease in recombination resistance. (Figure Presented).

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4814-4820
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume27
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-64081

Keywords

  • formamidinium lead triiodide-based
  • humidity
  • solar cells

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