Controls-Oriented Model for Secondary Effects of Wake Steering

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper presents a model to incorporate the secondary effects of wake steering in large arrays of turbines. Previous models have focused on the aerodynamic interaction of wake steering between two turbines. The model proposed in this paper builds on these models to include yaw-induced wake recovery and secondary steering seen in large arrays of turbines when wake steering is performed. Turbines operating in yaw misaligned conditions generate counter-rotating vortices that entrain momentum and contribute to the deformation and deflection of the wake at downstream turbines. Rows of turbines can compound the effects of wake steering that benefit turbines far downstream. This model quantifies these effects and demonstrates that wake steering has greater potential to increase the performance of a wind farm due to these counter-rotating vortices especially for large rows of turbines. This is validated using numerous large eddy simulations for two-turbine, three-turbine, five-turbine, and wind farm scenarios.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages22
JournalWind Energy Science Discussions
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5000-80255 for final paper as published in Wind Energy Science

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-75648


  • controls-oriented model
  • wind energy
  • wind farm control


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