Correlations of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Imaging with Device Performance, Defects, and Microstructural Properties

Steve Johnston, Thomas Unold, Ingrid Repins, Ana Kanevce, Katherine Zaunbrecher, Fei Yan, Jian V. Li, Patricia Dippo, Rajalakshmi Sundaramoorthy, Kim M. Jones, Bobby To

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus Citations


Camera imaging techniques have been used for the characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) solar cells. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging shows brightness variations after the deposition of the CIGS layer that persist through CdS deposition and subsequent processing steps to finish the devices. PL and electroluminescence imaging on finished cells show a correlation to the devices' corresponding efficiency and open-circuit voltage (V OC), and dark defect-related spots correspond to bright spots on images from illuminated lock-in thermography (LIT) and forward-bias dark LIT. These image-detected defect areas are weak diodes and shunts. Imaging provides locations of defects detrimental to solar cell performance. Some of these defects are analyzed in more detail by scanning electron microscopy using cross-sectional views.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number04D111
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2012

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5200-55921


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