Correlative Acoustic Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy and X-Ray Imaging to Investigate Gas-Induced Delamination in Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells during Thermal Runaway

Martin Pham, John Darst, Donal Finegan, James Robinson, Thomas Heenan, Matt Kok, Francesco Iacoviello, Rhodri Owen, William Walker, Oxana Magdysyuk, Thomas Connolley, Eric Darcy, Gareth Hinds, Dan Brett, Paul Shearing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus Citations

Abstract

It remains difficult to detect internal mechanical deformation and gas-induced degradation in lithium-ion batteries, especially outside specialized diagnostics laboratories. In this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical acoustic time-of-flight (EA-ToF) spectroscopy can be used as an insightful and field-deployable diagnostic/prognostic technique to sense the onset of failure. A 210 mAh commercial lithium-ion cell undergoing thermal abuse testing is probed with in situ and operando EA-ToF spectroscopy, together with simultaneous fractional thermal runaway calorimetry (FTRC) and synchrotron X-ray imaging. The combination of X-ray imaging and EA-ToF analysis provides new understanding into the through-plane mechanical deformation in lithium-ion batteries through direct visualisation and the acoustic ToF response. Internal structural changes, such as gas-induced delamination, are identified using EA-ToF spectroscopy due to variations in the attenuation and signal peak shifts. This is corroborated using X-ray imaging, demonstrating EA-ToF spectroscopy as a promising technique for detecting onset of battery failure.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number228039
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume470
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-77285

Keywords

  • Acoustic ToF spectroscopy
  • Battery safety
  • Li-ion batteries
  • Thermal runaway
  • X-ray imaging

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