Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages37
StatePublished - 2011

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5500-51860


  • economics
  • grid planning
  • grid studies
  • operational analysis
  • solar power
  • variable resources
  • wind power


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