Countdown to Perovskite Space Launch: Guidelines to Performing Relevant Radiation-Hardness Experiments

Ahmad Kirmani, Brandon Durant, Jonathan Grandidier, Nancy Haegel, Michael Kelzenberg, Yao Lao, Michael McGehee, Lyndsey McMillon-Brown, David Ostrowski, Timothy Peshek, Bibhudutta Rout, Ian Sellers, Mark Steger, Don Walker, David Wilt, Kaitlyn VanSant, Joseph Luther

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus Citations


Perovskite photovoltaics (PVs) are under intensive development for promise in terrestrial energy production. Soon, the community will find out how much of that promise may become reality. Perovskites also open new opportunities for lower cost space power. However, radiation tolerance of space environments requires appropriate analysis of relevant devices irradiated under representative radiation conditions. We present guidelines designed to rigorously test the radiation tolerance of perovskite PVs. We review radiation conditions in common orbits, calculate nonionizing and ionizing energy losses (NIEL and IEL) for perovskites, and prioritize proton radiation for effective nuclear interactions. Low-energy protons (0.05–0.15 MeV) create a representative uniform damage profile, whereas higher energy protons (commonly used in ground-based evaluation) require significantly higher fluence to accumulate the equivalent displacement damage dose due to lower scattering probability. Furthermore, high-energy protons may “heal” devices through increased electronic ionization. These procedural guidelines differ from those used to test conventional semiconductors.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1015-1031
Number of pages17
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Inc.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-81242


  • electronic ionization
  • ionizing energy loss
  • nonionizing energy loss
  • nuclear displacements
  • perovskites
  • proton irradiation
  • radiation tolerance
  • radiation-matter interactions
  • solar cells
  • space photovoltaics


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