CPES-QSM: A Quantitative Method Towards the Secure Operation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems

Juan Ospina, Venkatesh Venkataramanan, Charalambos Konstantinou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus Citations


Power systems are evolving into cyber-physical energy systems (CPES) mainly due to the integration of modern communication and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. CPES security evaluation is challenging since the physical and cyber layers are often not considered holistically. Existing literature focuses on only optimizing the operation of either the physical or cyber layer while ignoring the interactions between them. This paper proposes a metric, the Cyber-Physical Energy System Quantitative Security Metric (CPES-QSM), that quantifies the interaction between the cyber and physical layers across three domains: electrical, cyber-risk, and network topology. A method for incorporating the proposed cyber-metric into operational decisions is also proposed by formulating a cyber-constrained AC optimal power flow (C-ACOPF) that considers the status of all the CPES layers. The C-ACOPF considers the vulnerabilities of physical and cyber networks by incorporating factors such as voltage stability, contingencies, graph-theory, and IoT cyber risks, while using a multi-criteria decision-making technique. Simulation studies are conducted using standard IEEE test systems to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed metric and the C-ACOPF formulation.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)7577-7590
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5R00-84691


  • cyber-metric
  • cyber-physical energy systems
  • cybersecurity
  • optimal power flow
  • optimization
  • power systems


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