Cracked Film Lithography with CuGaOx Buffers for Bifacial CdTe Photovoltaics

Christopher Muzzillo, Matthew Reese, Chungho Lee, Gang Xiong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


Bifacial CdTe solar cells with greater power density than the monofacial baselines are demonstrated by using a CuGaOx rear interface buffer that passivates while reducing sheet resistance and contact resistance. Inserting CuGaOx between the CdTe and Au increases mean power density from 18.0 ± 0.5 to 19.8 ± 0.4 mW cm−2 for one sun front illumination. However, coupling CuGaOx with a transparent conductive oxide leads to an electrical barrier. Instead, CuGaOx is integrated with cracked film lithography (CFL)-patterned metal grids. CFL grid wires are spaced narrowly enough (≈10 µm) to alleviate semiconductor resistance while retaining enough passivation and transmittance for a bifacial power gain: bifacial CuGaOx/CFL grids generate 19.1 ± 0.6 mW cm−2 for 1 sun front + 0.08 sun rear illumination and 20.0 ± 0.6 mW cm−2 at 1 sun front + 0.52 sun rear—the highest reported power density at field albedo conditions for a scaled polycrystalline absorber.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2301939
Number of pages6
Issue number28
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Small published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-84785


  • bifacial
  • CdTe
  • grids
  • lithography
  • photovoltaics
  • scalable


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