Critical Evaluation of Potentiostatic Holds as Accelerated Predictors of Capacity Fade During Calendar Aging

Maxwell Schulze, Marco-Tulio Rodrigues, Josephine McBrayer, Daniel Abraham, Christopher Apblett, Ira Bloom, Zonghai Chen, Andrew Colclasure, Alison Dunlop, Chen Fang, Katherine Harrison, Gao Liu, Shelley Minteer, Nathan Neale, David Robertson, Adam Tornheim, Stephen Trask, Gabriel Veith, Ankit Verma, Zhenzhen YangChristopher Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus Citations


Li-ion batteries will lose both capacity and power over time due to calendar aging caused by slow parasitic processes that consume Li+ ions. Studying and mitigating these processes is traditionally an equally slow venture, which is especially taxing for the validation of new active materials and electrolyte additives. Here, we evaluate whether potentiostatic holds can be used to accelerate the diagnosis of Li+ loss during calendar aging. The technique is based on the idea that, under the right conditions, the current measured as the cell voltage is held constant can be correlated with the instantaneous rate of side reactions. Thus, in principle, these measurements could capture the rate of capacity fade in real time. In practice, we show that this method is incapable of quantitatively forecasting calendar aging trends. Instead, our study demonstrates that potentiostatic holds can be applied for initial qualitative screening of systems that exhibit promising long-term stability, which can be useful to shrink the parameter space for calendar aging studies. By facilitating the identification of improved formulations, this approach can help accelerate innovation in the battery industry.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number050531
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published on behalf of The Electrochemical Society by IOP Publishing Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-82688


  • battery
  • calendar
  • calendar aging
  • calendar life
  • Li-ion
  • Li-ion battery
  • potentiostatic
  • voltage hold


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