Crystallization of TiO2 Polymorphs from RF-Sputtered, Amorphous Thin-Film Precursors

O. Agirseven, D. T. Rivella, J. E.S. Haggerty, P. O. Berry, K. Diffendaffer, A. Patterson, J. Kreb, J. S. Mangum, B. P. Gorman, J. D. Perkins, B. R. Chen, L. T. Schelhas, J. Tate

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10 Scopus Citations


Crystalline TiO2 films of anatase, brookite, and rutile are reproducibly made from amorphous precursors deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, producing large-area, single phase films of uniform thickness. Sputtered amorphous TiO2 precursor thin films follow the general behavior observed for amorphous precursor thin films generated by pulsed laser deposition, namely, that oxygen deficiency is necessary for the formation of brookite and rutile. We quantify the oxygen deficiency and correlate it with the long wavelength optical absorption. We find that the precursor deposition rate is also a contributing factor to phase selection and that brookite and rutile form from films deposited more rapidly and anatase from films deposited more slowly. Sputtered and pulsed laser deposited amorphous precursor films prepared with similar oxygen deficiency and similar thickness result in the same final state after annealing, but the rate for sputtered precursors is slower.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number025109
Number of pages7
JournalAIP Advances
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-76206


  • crystallization
  • magnetron sputtering
  • optical absorption
  • optical imaging
  • polymorphism
  • pulsed laser deposition
  • raman spectroscopy
  • sputter deposition
  • thin films
  • x-ray diffraction


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