Curled-Skewed Wakes Behind Yawed Wind Turbines Subject to Veered Inflow

Mohammadreza Mohammadi, Majid Bastankhah, Paul Fleming, Matthew Churchfield, Ervin Bossanyi, Lars Landberg, Renzo Ruisi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


This work presents a new engineering analytical model that predicts the effect of both the turbine yaw misalignment and the inflow wind veer on the wake flow distribution downwind of a wind turbine. To consider the veered inflow, two methods were examined. In the first method, the curled shape of the wake due to the yaw offset is initially modelled. The wake shape is then laterally skewed at each height due to the wind veer based on the assumption that the turbine wake is transported downstream by the incoming flow. The second method is a more realistic approach that accounts for the effect of wind veer on the wind velocity direction and the yaw angle seen by the wind turbine. This models the wake region in a local coordinate system defined based on the wind direction at each height. A coordinate transformation is then performed to represent the wake flow distribution in the global coordinate system attached to the ground. The results show that while the two methods provide similar outputs for small variations in the wind direction across the rotor, the difference becomes more evident with an increase in wind veer. High-fidelity simulations for a turbine subject to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer were employed to validate model predictions for different operating conditions.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9135
Number of pages16
Issue number23
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-84490


  • analytical wake model
  • Coriolis force
  • wake steering
  • wind turbine
  • wind veer
  • yaw angle


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