Cyber Network Design for Secondary Frequency Regulation: A Spectral Approach

Changhong Zhao, Linqi Guo, Steven Low

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

2 Scopus Citations


We present a preliminary theoretical framework based on spectral graph theory that captures how the cyber topology of a distributed secondary frequency control scheme impacts the stability, optimality, and transient performance of our power system as a cyber-physical network. We show that a collection of polynomials defined in terms of the cyber and physical Laplacian eigenvalues encode information on the interplay between cyber and physical networks. It is demonstrated that to understand the impact of adding cyber connectivity, one should separate the low-damping and high-damping regimes. Although adding cyber connectivity always improves the performance for high-damping systems, it is not the case for low-damping scenarios. Based on the theoretical study, we discuss how a good cyber network should be designed. Our empirical study shows that for practical systems, the number of communication channels that is needed to achieve near-optimal performance is usually less than twice the number of buses.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2018
Event2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC) - Dublin, Ireland
Duration: 11 Jun 201815 Jun 2018


Conference2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC)
CityDublin, Ireland

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-72608


  • eigenvalues and eigenfunctions
  • frequency control
  • laplace equations
  • network topology
  • power system stability
  • topology
  • transmission line matrix methods


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