DC-Connected Solar Plus Storage Modeling for Behind-the-Meter Systems in SAM

Nicholas DiOrio, Janine Keith, Nathan Blair

Research output: NRELPresentation


A detailed model for PV plus DC-connected batteries was developed. This model was compared to an existing AC connected battery model in the System Advisor Model (SAM) tool using a hypothetical Honolulu residence with a PV plus storage system. The stand-alone PV system was shown to provide the most value; however due to the increased difficulty of PV systems being approved for grid interconnection in Hawaii, it is valuable to install an AC or DC connected battery to enable full PV self-consumption under a less restrictive interconnection option. In that case both battery systems enabled full PV self consumption at the residence, requiring no power to be exported to the grid. The DC-connected battery system captured energy from the PV array which would have also been clipped due to inverter limitations. For a PV system with DC/AC ratio of 1.23, the battery configurations produced net-present values within 1% of each other, but when the DC/AC ratio increased to 1.85, the DC-connected system increased the net-present value by 13%.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages14
StatePublished - 2018

Publication series

NamePresented at the 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC), 10-15 June 2018, Waikoloa Village, Hawaii

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-6A20-71779


  • AC-connected
  • batteries
  • DC-connected
  • pv
  • SAM
  • solar plus storage
  • topology


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