Densified HKUST-1 Monoliths as a Route to High Volumetric and Gravimetric Hydrogen Storage Capacity

David Madden, Daniel O'Nolan, Nakul Rampal, Robin Babu, Ceren Camur, Ali Al Shakhs, Shi-Yuan Zhang, Graham Rance, Javier Perez, Nicola Casati, Carlos Cuadrado-Collados, Denis O'Sullivan, Nicholas Rice, Thomas Gennett, Philip Parilla, Sarah Shulda, Katherine Hurst, Vitalie Stavila, Mark Allendorf, Joaquin Silvestre-AlberoAlexander Forse, Neil Champness, Karena Chapman, David Fairen-Jimenez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus Citations


We are currently witnessing the dawn of hydrogen (H2) economy, where H2 will soon become a primary fuel for heating, transportation, and long-distance and long-term energy storage. Among diverse possibilities, H2 can be stored as a pressurized gas, a cryogenic liquid, or a solid fuel via adsorption onto porous materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as adsorbent materials with the highest theoretical H2 storage densities on both a volumetric and gravimetric basis. However, a critical bottleneck for the use of H2 as a transportation fuel has been the lack of densification methods capable of shaping MOFs into practical formulations while maintaining their adsorptive performance. Here, we report a high-throughput screening and deep analysis of a database of MOFs to find optimal materials, followed by the synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of an optimal monolithic MOF (monoMOF) for H2 storage. After densification, this monoMOF stores 46 g L-1 H2 at 50 bar and 77 K and delivers 41 and 42 g L-1 H2 at operating pressures of 25 and 50 bar, respectively, when deployed in a combined temperature-pressure (25-50 bar/77 K → 5 bar/160 K) swing gas delivery system. This performance represents up to an 80% reduction in the operating pressure requirements for delivering H2 gas when compared with benchmark materials and an 83% reduction compared to compressed H2 gas. Our findings represent a substantial step forward in the application of high-density materials for volumetric H2 storage applications.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)13729-13739
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number30
StatePublished - 3 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-83773


  • adsorptive performance
  • densification methods
  • hydrogen economy
  • metal-organic frameworks


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