Depot-Based Vehicle Data for National Analysis of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Charging

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs) are a major source of greenhouse gases and local criteria air pollutants. Electrifying MHDVs may reduce these harmful emissions, which disproportionately impact disadvantaged communities. Due to their relatively high per-vehicle energy needs, consistent fleet operations, and frequent colocation of multiple vehicles at depots, MHDVs may have more spatially and temporally concentrated charging demands than light-duty passenger electric vehicles. That charging concentration means their electrification may require careful advance planning and coordination to manage potential impacts to the electrical grid via charge management or infrastructure upgrades. However, MHDV duty cycles and parking schedules are highly variable across vocations of operation, and there is a shortage of nationally representative, vocationally diverse public data describing typical MHDV operations. This report summarizes the methodology - designed with national representativeness in mind - used to create a new set of data describing typical daily driving distances, dwell durations, and normalized electric vehicle depot charging load curves for MHDVs. The dataset reflects the subset of MHDV operating patterns that may originate from a consistent depot each day and rely on the same depot for charging. In addition to trucks with depot-centric vocational patterns, the data describes operations of transit buses and school buses, each with a depot-centric focus. The dataset is available to the public and suitable for national analysis. It can inform research, infrastructure planning, and policymaking regarding the electrification of MHDVs.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages49
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5400-88241


  • bus
  • charging
  • charging load
  • data
  • dataset
  • depot
  • electric vehicles
  • freight
  • heavy duty vehicles
  • medium and heavy duty vehicles
  • MHDV
  • school bus
  • transit bus
  • travel
  • truck


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