Design and Operation of Energy Systems with Large Amounts of Variable Generation: Final Summary Report, IEA Wind TCP Task 25: VTT Technology 396

Hannele Holttinen, Juha Kiviluoma, Niina Helisto, Thomas Levy, Nickie Menemenlis, Liu Jun, Nicolaos Cutululis, Matti Koivisto, Kaushik Das, Antje Orths, Peter Eriksen, Jean-Yves Bourmaud, Jan Dobschinski, Christoph Pellinger, Serafin von Roon, Andrej Guminski, Damian Flynn, Enrico Carlini, Yoh Yasuda, Ryuya TanabeArjen van der Meer, German Morales-Espana, Magnus Korpas, Til Vrana, Ana Estanqueiro, Antonio Couto, Bernardo Silva, Sergio Martinez, Lennart Soder, Goran Strbac, Danny Pudjianto, Spyros Giannelos, Bethany Frew, Bri-Mathias Hodge, Shahil Shah, J. Smith, Debbie Lew, Mark O'Malley, Vasiliki Klonari

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This report summarises findings on wind integration from the 17 countries or sponsors participating in the International Energy Agency Wind Technology Collaboration Programme (IEA Wind TCP) Task 25 from 2006-2020. Both real experience and studies are reported. Many wind integration studies incorporate solar energy, and most of the results discussed here are valid for other variable renewables in addition to wind. The national case studies address several impacts of wind power on electric power systems. In this report, they are grouped under long-term planning issues and short-term operational impacts. Long-term planning issues include grid planning and capacity adequacy. Short-term operational impacts include reliability, stability, reserves, and maximising the value of wind in operational timescales (balancing related issues). The first section presents the variability and uncertainty of power system-wide wind power, and the last section presents recent studies toward 100% shares of renewables. The appendix provides a summary of ongoing research in the national projects contributing to Task 25 for 2021-2024. The design and operation of power and energy systems is an evolving field. As ambitious targets toward net-zero carbon energy systems are announced globally, many scenarios are being made regarding how to reach these future decarbonized energy systems, most of them involving large amounts of variable renewables, mainly wind and solar energy. The secure operation of power systems is increasingly challenging, and the impacts of variable renewables, new electrification loads together with increased distribution system resources will lead to somewhat different challenges for different systems. Tools and methods to study future power and energy systems also need to evolve, and both shortterm operational aspects (such as power system stability) and long-term aspects (such as resource adequacy) will probably see new paradigms of operation and design. The experience of operating and planning systems with large amounts of variable generation is accumulating, and research to tackle the challenges of inverter-based, nonsynchronous generation is on the way. Energy transition and digitalization also bring new flexibility opportunities, both short and long term.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages195
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A40-80998


  • grid integration
  • operations
  • planning
  • renewables
  • stability
  • wholesale electricity markets


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