Design of an Advanced Energy Management System for Microgrid Control Using a State Machine

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45 Scopus Citations


A state machine is proposed as the solution for an automated microgrid energy management system (EMS) to improve transient performance during transition operations. It characterizes microgrid operation by seven states that cover all the operating modes: two for steady-state operation (grid-connected and islanded), four for transition operation (preparing for disconnection, transitioning to islanding, preparing for reconnection, and transitioning to grid-connected), and one for emergency operation (black-start operation). A unique dispatch algorithm is developed for each state to achieve the control objective, and the transition function is implemented in the state machine as control logics to transition the system from one state to the next. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed state machine is validated by simulation in MATLAB with an example microgrid, and the test results show excellent performance of the state machine to achieve the target control objective in each state and to improve the system's transient performance during transition operation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2407-2421
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Energy
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-71446


  • Dispatch function
  • Energy management system (EMS)
  • Microgrid transition operation
  • State machine
  • Transition function


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