Design of Zone-Based Hierarchical Protection System for 100% Renewable Microgrids: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Design of a reliable and secure protection system for a 100% renewable microgrid with only inverter-based resources (IBRs), is quite challenging. Most of the existing protection schemes in the state-of-the-art are suitable for microgrids with mixed-type of distributed energy resources (DERs) that covers both rotating machine-based DERs as well as IBR-based DERs, where the fault current level is moderately high. Due to drastic reduction in fault current level based on mode of operation and the variation of the low fault current level based on the operating level of the IBRs, the existing protection schemes face critical challenges, in case of a 100% renewable microgrid. This article proposes a zone-based hierarchical protection scheme that partitions a microgrid into various zones-of-protection and assigns speed-based hierarchical protection schemes in order to address the fundamental challenges of such microgrids. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated using time-domain simulation study on a microgrid test system. The results corroborates that the proposed hierarchical zone-based protection scheme exhibits enhanced reliability, security and dependability while tested with various fault cases (fault types, locations, and impedances), and non-fault cases during both grid-tied and islanded mode.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2024
EventIEEE PES T&D Conference and Exposition - Anaheim, CA
Duration: 6 May 20249 May 2024


ConferenceIEEE PES T&D Conference and Exposition
CityAnaheim, CA

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-87200


  • grid-forming inverter
  • hierarchical protection scheme
  • high impedance fault.
  • microgrid protection


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