Designing Modules to Prevent Reverse Bias Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells when Partial Shading Occurs

Eli J. Wolf, Isaac E. Gould, Lyle B. Bliss, Joseph J. Berry, Michael D. McGehee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus Citations


When a solar cell in a panel is shaded, the illuminated cells can place a large reverse bias on the shaded cell to attempt to force current through it. Although the panel can continue to produce power, the reverse bias can cause significant problems for the shaded cell. In the case of perovskite solar modules, Joule heating and irreversible electrochemical reactions will degrade the cell. Some photovoltaic technologies use bypass diodes to solve this problem. To prevent both a perovskite cell and an all-perovskite tandem cell from falling into reverse bias breakdown while shaded, no more than two cells per bypass diode are allowed, which is likely to be prohibitively expensive for many applications. Herein, how many solar cells can be protected by one bypass diode in single-junction and multijunction perovskite modules is explored. It is easier to incorporate bypass diodes into modules with singulated cells than with monolithic panels. It is shown that perovskite–silicon tandems can be protected with fewer bypass diodes than with single-junction perovskite modules. It is suggested that if bypass diodes cannot be feasibly incorporated, then the panels should be deployed in utility-scale power plants.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2100239
Number of pages8
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-80136


  • degradation
  • module designs
  • perovskites
  • reverse bias
  • simulation


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