Developing Frequency Stability Constraint for Unit Commitment Problem Considering High Penetration of Renewables: Preprint

Ningchao Gao, Shuan Dong, Xin Fang, Andy Hoke, David Wenzhong Gao, Jin Tan

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


As zero-carbon electricity systems become the trend of future grid, the system inertia provided by conventional synchronous generators (SGs) keeps decreasing. The resultant lower system inertia will inevitably cause frequency stability problem, especially in the first few seconds after disturbance. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a frequency stability unit commitment constraint considering the fast frequency responses (FFRs) from inverter-based resources (IBRs). Thus, this paper first analyzes a frequency nadir differential equation that considers SG governor model and three kinds of FFR provided by IBRs. A system frequency nadir estimation framework is developed with consideration of various conventional SG and IBR models. The accuracy of this frequency estimation framework is validated by largest N-1 contingency simulation result of a real island system. Then, the adaptive inertia frequency stability unit commitment constraint is derived from sensitivity analysis method. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our developed constraints with one year day-ahead unit commitment results of the real island system.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2023
Event50th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - San Juan, Puerto Rico
Duration: 11 Jun 202316 Jun 2023


Conference50th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
CitySan Juan, Puerto Rico

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-88828 for paper as published in proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-86622


  • fast frequency response
  • frequency nadir
  • inverter-based resources
  • stability constraint
  • unit commitment


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