Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection

Jin Tan, Yingchen Zhang, Tarek Elgindy, Santosh Veda, Yilu Liu

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

17 Scopus Citations


Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to develop test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 9 May 2017
Event9th Annual IEEE Green Technologies Conference, GreenTech 2017 - Denver, United States
Duration: 29 Mar 201731 Mar 2017


Conference9th Annual IEEE Green Technologies Conference, GreenTech 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-67737 for preprint

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-68730


  • Frequency response
  • High PV penetration
  • PV projection
  • WECC


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