Development and Application of Schema Based Occupant-Centric Building Performance Metrics: Article No. 3513

Cory Mosiman, Gregor Henze, Herbert Els

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus Citations


Occupant behavior can significantly influence the operation and performance of buildings. Many occupant-centric key performance indicators (KPIs) rely on having accurate counts of the number of occupants in a building, which is very different to how occupancy information is currently collected in the majority of buildings today. To address this gap, the authors develop a standardized methodology for the calculation of percent space utilization for buildings, which is formulated with respect to two prevalent operational data schemas: the Brick Schema and Project Haystack. The methodology is scalable across different levels of spatial granularity and irrespective of sensor placement. Moreover, the methods are intended to make use of typical occupancy sensors that capture presence level occupancy and not counts of people. Since occupant-hours is a preferable metric to use in KPI calculations, a method to convert between percent space utilization and occupant-hours using the design occupancy for a space is also developed. The methodology is demonstrated on a small commercial office space in Boulder, Colorado using data collected between June 2018 and February 2019. A multiple linear regression is performed that shows strong evidence for a relationship between building energy consumption and percent space utilization.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages16
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5500-80526


  • brick schema
  • key performance indicators
  • occupancy detection
  • occupant-centric
  • project haystack
  • space utilization


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