Development of a Data-Derived Sooting Index Including Oxygen-Containing Fuel Components

Peter St. John, Seon Ah Kim, Robert McCormick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus Citations


Particulate matter (PM) emissions from spark-ignited engines, particularly those with direct injection, now exceed those of light-duty diesel engines equipped with diesel particle filters. Fuel chemistry is one of several interacting factors that determine the amount of PM produced during combustion. Understanding the relationship between fuel chemistry and PM emissions is therefore essential in identifying fuels with a lower tendency to form soot. However, existing predictive models have been shown to perform poorly when fuel blends include a large proportion of oxygenated molecules. In this study, we report a new analysis of the data from the EPAct V2 data set with the objective of developing an emission index that adequately handles the effects of oxygenate blending on vehicle and engine emissions. Our approach uses regularized linear regression to select the most important parameters in predicting normalized vehicle emissions as a function of fuel composition and bulk fuel properties. Interestingly, our data-derived metric reproduces a similar functional form to the particulate matter index equation, including a chemical tendency to form soot as well as the vapor pressure. The resulting metric better predicts PM formation in the EPAct V2 data set as a function of fuel properties and composition than existing models.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)10290-10296
Number of pages7
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Issue number10
StatePublished - 17 Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2700-74780


  • emissions
  • particulate matter
  • spark-ignited engines


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