Development of a Dedicated Ethanol Ultra-Low-Emissions Vehicle (ULEV): Phase 3 Report

Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


The objective of the 3.5 year project discussed in this report was to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or an ethanol blend) that can meet California's ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. This particular report summarizes the third phase of theproject, which lasted 12 months. Emissions tests were conducted with advanced aftertreatment devices on one of the two, almost identical, test vehicles, a 1993 Ford Taurus flexible-fuel vehicle. The report also covers tests on the engine removed from the second Taurus vehicle. This engine was modified for an increased compression ratio, fitted with air-assist injectors, and included an advancedengine control system with model-based control.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages105
StatePublished - 1998

Bibliographical note

Work performed by Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/SR-540-24225


  • alternative fuels
  • CAFE
  • emissions
  • ethanol


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