Development of an Encoding Method on an Co-simulation Platform for Mitigating the Impact of Unreliable Communication

Fuhong Xie, Catie McEntee, Mingzhi Zhang, Barry Mather, Ning Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) based modeling approach for simulating impacts of unreliable communication on the performance of centralized volt-var control and for developing an encoding method to mitigate the impacts. First, an asynchronous real-time HIL simulation platform is introduced to enable multi-rate co-simulation of a distribution system with many inverter-based distributed energy resources (DERs). The distribution system is modeled by milliseconds phasor-based models and the DERs are modeled by micro-seconds power electronic models. Communication connections between a centralized volt-var controller (modeled externally to the HIL testbed) and smart inverters are built by implementing Modbus links and the Long Term Evolution network. On this co-simulation platform, an enhanced, augmented Lagrangian multiplier based encoded data recovery (EALM-EDR) algorithm for mitigating the impact of unreliable communication is developed and validated. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of using the HIL-based co-simulation platform as a power grid digital twin for developing algorithms that coordinate a large number of heterogeneous control systems through wired and wireless communication links.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2496-2507
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-78729


  • augmented Lagrangian multiplier
  • data recovery
  • distribution
  • hardware-in-the-loop
  • volt-var control


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