Development of Direct-Use Projects: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


A geothermal direct-use project utilizes a natural resource, a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures, which is capable of providing heat and/or cooling to buildings, greenhouses, aquaculture ponds, and industrial processes. Geothermal utilization requires matching the varied needs of the user and characteristics of the resource in order to development a successful project. Eachapplication is unique; guidelines are provided for the logical steps required to implement a project. Recommended temperature and flows are suggested for spas and pools, space and district heating, greenhouse and aquaculture pond heating, and industrial applications. Guidelines are provided for selecting the necessary equipment for successfully implementing a direct-use project, includingdownhole pumps, piping, heat exchangers, and heat convectors. Additionally, the relationship between temperature, flow rate, and the use of heat exchangers to provide heat to a space with hot water or hot air is provided for a number of applications, with suggested 'rules of thumb'.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2011
EventStanford University Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop - Stanford, California
Duration: 31 Jan 20112 Feb 2011


ConferenceStanford University Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop
CityStanford, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5500-49948


  • aquaculture
  • direct-use
  • geothermal
  • greenhouses
  • heating and cooling


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