Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance with Biodiesel Formulations: SAE Paper No. 2024-01-2711

Venkata Lakkireddy, Phillip Weber, Robert McCormick, Steve Howell

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

1 Scopus Citations


Biodiesel (i.e., mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils and animal fats) is a renewable diesel fuel providing life-cycle greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum-derived diesel. With the expectation that there would be widespread use of biodiesel as a substitute for ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), there have been many studies looking into the effects of biodiesel on engine and aftertreatment, particularly its compatibility to the current aftertreatment technologies. The objective of this study was to generate experimental data to measure the effectiveness of a current technology diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) to oxidize soy-based biodiesel at various blend levels with ULSD. Biodiesel blends from 0 to 100% were evaluated on an engine using a conventional DOC. In the steady-state performance test where fuel dosing rate was increased at fixed DOC inlet temperature, B20 performed similarly to ULSD at the lowest flow rate or exhaust temperature over 340 degrees C for medium and high flows. B50 blends performed nearly as well under most conditions. Higher blends exhibited reduced thermal efficiency and DOC outlet temperature with increasing dosing rate under most conditions and required exhaust temperatures over 400 degrees C to achieve or nearly achieve performance similar to ULSD. In the steady-state light of test where fuel dosing rate is fixed but exhaust temperature is increased incrementally, B20 generally performed similarly to ULSD at the highest inlet temperature, with only minor deficiencies at lower temperatures. Higher blends exhibited lower thermal efficiency and did not achieve as high DOC outlet temperatures. In the transient light-off test light-off temperature for ULSD was typically less than 225 degrees C, while for B100 it ranged from 290 degrees C to 330 degrees C. Based on the data set, it can be concluded that biodiesel fuels have a higher light-off temperature primarily because of their higher boiling points, with a minor secondary impact of their lower energy content.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2024
EventSociety of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2024 WCX World Congress Experience - Detroit, MI
Duration: 16 Apr 202418 Apr 2024


ConferenceSociety of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2024 WCX World Congress Experience
CityDetroit, MI

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-4A00-90115


  • biodiesel
  • diesel fuels
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • vegetable oils


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