Direct Reuse of Graphite and Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Recovered from Ultrafast-Laser Ablation Debris in Li-Ion Battery Electrodes: Article No. 234027

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We demonstrate that debris collected from the ultrafast-laser ablation of graphite anodes can be directly reused in a lithium-ion battery with little to no negative effects on electrochemical performance. Further, we show that while post-ablation NMC (LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O) cathode debris will require additional processing before being incorporated into an electrode, its critical materials (nickel, manganese, and cobalt) are not lost during ablation and can be recovered for recycling. Pre- and post-ablation materials are characterized with a suite of diagnostics, including SEM, TEM, X-ray CT, EDS, and XRD, to study changes in material morphology, composition and crystal structure. Graphite exhibited little to no morphological or compositional changes and a slight annealing of its crystal structure. NMC underwent profound morphological and crystallographic changes, but retained its elemental composition. Finally, post-ablation materials were re-manufactured into electrodes and cycled vs lithium metal. Graphite showed equal or better capacity and Coulombic efficiency compared to pre-ablation electrodes, while the post-ablation NMC exhibited severely reduced electrochemical performance. We discuss the outlook for application of this work to advanced manufacturing lines that produce next-generation, laser-patterned electrodes.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume596
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-87626

Keywords

  • advanced manufacturing
  • battery recycling
  • graphite
  • lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • ultrafast-laser ablation

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