Distributed ADMM Using Private Blockchain for Power Flow Optimization in Distribution Network With Coupled and Mixed-Integer Constraints

Chinmay Shah, Jennifer King, Richard Wies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus Citations


The optimization problem for scheduling distributed energy resources (DERs) and battery energy storage systems (BESS) integrated with the power grid is important to minimize energy consumption from conventional sources in response to demand. Conventionally this optimization problem is solved in a centralized manner, limiting the size of the problem that can be solved and creating a high communication overhead because all the data is transferred to the central controller. These limitations are addressed by the proposed distributed consensus-based alternating direction method of multiplier (DC-ADMM) optimization algorithm, which decomposes the optimization problem into subproblems with private cost function and constraints. The distribution feeder is partitioned into low coupling subnetworks/regions, which solves the private subproblem locally and exchanges information with the neighboring regions to reach consensus. The relaxation strategy is employed for mixed-integer and coupled constraints introduced in the optimal power flow (OPF) problem by stationary and transportable BESS because DC-ADMM convergence is only guaranteed for strict convex problems. The information exchange and synchronization between subnetworks/regions are vital for distributed optimization. In this work, both of these aspects are addressed by the blockchain. The smart contract deployed on the blockchain network acts as a mediator for secure data exchange and synchronization in distributed computation. The blockchain-based distributed optimization problem's effectiveness is tested for a 0.5-MW laboratory microgrid for one hour ahead and day-ahead for the IEEE 123-bus and EPRI J1 test feeders, and results are compared with a centralized solution.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9381210
Pages (from-to)46560-46572
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-79129


  • Alternating direction method of multiplier
  • battery energy storage systems
  • blockchain
  • distributed optimization
  • microgrid
  • optimal power flow


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