Distributed Embedded Energy Converter Technologies for Marine Renewable Energy: A Technical Report

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The domain of distributed embedded energy converter technologies (DEEC-Tec) is a nascent and underexplored paradigm for harvesting and converting marine renewable energy. The paradigm distinguishes itself through its use of many small distributed embedded energy converters (DEECs) that, ultimately, are assembled through the creation of "DEEC-Tec metamaterials" to create an overall larger marine renewable energy harvesting and converting structure. As an example, such a structure could be an ocean wave energy converter - a converter whose structure is made from various types of DEEC-Tec metamaterials that harvests ocean wave energy and converts that energy into something more useful such as electricity. To that end, DEEC-Tec can be viewed at three different technology levels: (1) individual distributed embedded energy converters, also known as DEECs; (2) DEEC-Tec metamaterials-essentially, pseudo-materials made from the interconnection of many DEECs; and (3) overall larger complete marine renewable energy harvesting-converting structures-these structures being made from DEEC-Tec metamaterials. Arising directly from the application of DEEC-Tec to harvest and convert ocean wave energy are several noteworthy benefits, some of which include: (1) the lack of load concentrations into singular components or subsystems, (2) broad-banded ocean wave energy frequency harvesting and conversion, and (3) inherent redundancy-failure of some individual DEECs does not represent a failure of an entire DEEC-Tec-based WEC. This report describes DEEC-Tec by way of descriptions of those three technology levels: individual DEECs, DEEC-Tec metamaterials, and DEEC-Tec-based WECs. Moreover, the report describes corresponding research approaches and methodologies for related concepts such as DEEC-Tec-based WEC topologies and morphologies in addition to manufacturing and fabrication techniques found suitable for the application of DEEC-Tec within the general domain of marine renewable energy-moving beyond only ocean wave energy conversion.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages42
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5700-85158


  • active structures
  • adaptive structures
  • DEEC
  • DEEC-Tec
  • distributed embedded energy conversion technologies
  • flexible wave energy converters
  • marine renewable energy
  • metamaterial
  • ocean wave energy converters
  • WEC


Dive into the research topics of 'Distributed Embedded Energy Converter Technologies for Marine Renewable Energy: A Technical Report'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this