Distributed Generator-Based Distribution System Service Restoration Strategy and Model-Free Control Methods

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5 Scopus Citations


The rapid growth of distributed generator (DG) capacities has introduced additional controllable assets to improve the performance of distribution systems in terms of service restoration. Renewable DGs are of particular interest to utility companies, but the stochastic nature of intermittent renewable DGs could have a negative impact on the electric grid if they are not properly handled. In this study, we investigate distribution system service restoration using DGs as the primary power source, and we develop an effective approach to handle the uncertainty of renewable DGs under extreme conditions. The distribution system service restoration problem can be described as a mixed-integer second-order cone programming model by modifying the radial topology constraints and power flow equations. The uncertainty of renewable DGs will be modeled using a chance-constrained approach. Furthermore, the forecast errors and noises in real-time operation are solved using a novel model-free control algorithm that can automatically track the trajectory of real-time DG output. The proposed service restoration strategy and model-free control algorithm are validated using an IEEE 123-bus test system.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)126-135
Number of pages10
JournalGlobal Energy Interconnection
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-78870


  • Distributed generator (DG)
  • Distribution system service restoration
  • Intermittent renewable energy sources
  • Model-free control
  • Power system resilience
  • Uncertainty management


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