Distribution System Behind-the-Meter DERs: Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Control

Ankur Srivastava, Junbo Zhao, Hao Zhu, Fei Ding, Shunbo Lei, Ioannis Zografopoulos, Rabab Haider, Soroush Vahedi, Wenyu Wang, Gustavo Valverde, Antonio Gomez-Exposito, Anamika Dubey, Charalambos Konstantinou, Nanpeng Yu, Sukumar Brahma, Yuri Rodrigues, Mohammed Ben-Idris, Bin Liu, Anuradha Annaswamy, Fankun BuYishen Wang, Danny Espin-Sarzosa, Felipe Valencia, Jawana Gabrielski, Seyed Mohseni-Bonab, Javad Jazaeri, Zhaoyu Wang, Anurag Srivastava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper summarizes the three-year technical activities of the IEEE Task Force (TF) on behind-the-meter (BTM) distributed energy resources (DERs): estimation, uncertainty quantification, and control. The potential grid services from BTM DERs are discussed in detail. The paper also reviews the state-of-the-art for BTM DERs visibility, uncertainty quantification, and, optimization and control. Furthermore, different aspects of the market structures associated with BTM DERs are covered, including emerging market and business models. Finally, needs and recommendations are provided for additional areas such as system protection, computing capabilities, algorithm development, market structure design, cyberinfrastructure and security, and hardware and software developments.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-90285


  • behind-the-meter
  • cybersecurity
  • distributed energy resources
  • flexibility
  • frequency regulation
  • market design
  • system resilience
  • uncertainty quantification
  • visibility


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