Dopant Activation in Sn-Doped Ga2O3 Investigated by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

John Perkins, S. Siah, R. Brandt, K. Lim, L. Schelhas, R. Jaramillo, M. Heinemann, D. Chua, J. Wright, C. Segre, R. Gordon, M. Toney, T. Buonassisi

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Doping activity in both beta-phase (β-) and amorphous (a-) Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3:Sn) is investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A single crystal of β-Ga2O3:Sn grown using edge-defined film-fed growth at 1725°C is compared with amorphous Ga2O3:Sn films deposited at low temperature (<300°C). Our XAS analyses indicate that activated Sn dopant atoms in conductive single crystal β-Ga2O3:Sn are present as Sn4+, preferentially substituting for Ga at the octahedral site, as predicted by theoretical calculations. In contrast, inactive Sn atoms in resistive a-Ga2O3:Sn are present in either +2 or +4 charge states depending on growth conditions. These observations suggest the importance of growing Ga2O3:Sn at high temperature to obtain a crystalline phase and controlling the oxidation state of Sn during growth to achieve dopant activation.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 252103
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number25
StatePublished - 21 Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-65774


  • atomic layer deposition
  • doping
  • pulsed laser deposition
  • x-ray absorption near edge structure
  • x-ray absorption spectroscopy


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