Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-voltlithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school buswould initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions thanthe baseline comparison bus.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2011
EventSAE 2011 World Congress and Exhibition - Detroit, Michigan
Duration: 12 Apr 201114 Apr 2011


ConferenceSAE 2011 World Congress and Exhibition
CityDetroit, Michigan

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-50251


  • emissions
  • fuel savings
  • PHEV
  • plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
  • school buses


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